Metal working fluids, especially the water-miscible metal working fluids, are complex, multi-component systems that have to meet a wide range of requirements.
The main components are the base oil, which has a lubricating effect, and water, which provides good cooling.
To make oil and water compatible, surfactants are used. In addition, various standard and special amines are used as pH buffers and for corrosion protection. To prevent foaming of the metal working fluid, antifoams are used. Wetting agents improve the wetting of the metal by the metal working fluid and dispersing agents ensure that solid particles are kept in suspension, do not settle and do not lead to clogging.